Para la comunicación política, el elector no es un bloque homogéneo

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Publicado en cialis 5 mg costo Cronista. Por Sergio Pollacia

Uno de los grandes desafíos de la comunicación política es entender que el militante o el elector de un determinado partido o de un movimiento político no es un bloque homogéneo. Sin embargo, la adopción de estrategias de segmentación que están en el corazón del marketing se dio relativamente tarde en la comunicación política, en parte porque choca con la idea de lo masivo, de que la política tiene que ser lo más abarcadora que sea posible, para lograr, en definitiva, la mayor cantidad de votos.
Una de las segmentaciones más básicas del marketing es la demográfica, sexo y edad. Hombres y mujeres consumidores, que también son hombres y mujeres ciudadanos y electores. La diferencia de género está presente en la política aunque es bueno preguntarse en qué sentidos es válida. Veamos algunas manifestaciones de esta diferenciación dentro de la política actual.
En América latina, la llegada de mujeres a la presidencia de sus países: Cristina Fernández, Michelle Bachelet, Dilma Rousseff puso en primer plano el papel de las mujeres en política. Y como definir, las reivindicaciones y preocupaciones del electorado femenino, por ejemplo. Políticas más ligadas a la sensibilidad social. Lo que antes era un tabú, ahora es prioritario ponerlo en el armado de una campaña.
Las cuestiones de género son tematizadas por el actual gobierno: la Ley 26.485 de protección integral para prevenir, sancionar y erradicar la violencia contra las mujeres, sancionada en 2009, y la Ley de matrimonio igualitario sancionada en 2010, son dos ejemplos claros.
Pero, estas cuestiones políticas que son tema en las campañas ¿deben encararse de manera distinta según se le hable a los hombres o a las mujeres? ¿Es importante hacer una diferenciación entre géneros, como hace una campaña publicitaria o como se define el target en un brief para una agencia?
Hay situaciones particulares que sin duda abren la posibilidad de una escucha diferente, porque quien padece una situación de injusticia tiene una sensibilidad especial. Por ejemplo, cuando fui presidente de mesa en una elección, comencé a tomarle los datos a una mujer en una mesa, y la mujer se llamaba Roberto. Como comunicador lo primero que pensé fue que Roberto formaba parte de un público que, más que un slogan de campaña, le interesaba y votaba realmente a una sólida base de propuestas que hablarán sobre su condición de género.
¿Les interesa más el trabajo y las cuestiones macroeconómicas a los hombres y aquellas sobre salud y economía doméstica a las mujeres? ¿Es lícito en política segmentar de la misma manera que tradicionalmente lo han hecho los mensajes publicitarios?
Existe un preconcepto de que la violencia doméstica es un problema de las mujeres cuando, en realidad, es también un problema de los hombres y de la sociedad en su conjunto. Es un malentendido y lo comprobamos. Desarrollamos una de las campañas más claras en ese terreno para el candidato a intendente Gustavo Menéndez, en Merlo, uno de los distritos más atrasados en derechos humanos. Con conceptos como “El maquillaje no tapa las heridas del Alma”. Recogió excelentes comentarios dentro de una sociedad, y no solo de parte de las mujeres. Del mismo modo, la marcha con la consigna “Ni una menos” es una convocatoria a todos, hombres y mujeres.
El desafío es, entonces, entender de qué manera esa herramienta tan familiar al publicitario, la segmentación, puede ser aplicada en la comunicación política. Como dijimos al principio, los electores no son un bloque homogéneo, pero la extrapolación de un concepto marketinero a las ideologías puede llevar a la banalización.

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