Raúl es Castro, pero no puede ser Fidel

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Publicado en Politizen. Por Rodrigo de Miguel @Rodridemiguel

Max Weber, uno de los padres de la ciencia política, define en su obra ‘El Político y el Científico’ la autoridad de la gracia o carisma como “la entrega puramente personal y la confianza, igualmente personal, en la capacidad para las revelaciones, el heroísmo u otras cualidades de caudillo que un individuo posee. Autoridad detentada tradicionalmente por los Profetas, los jefes guerreros elegidos, los grandes demagogos o los jefes de los partidos políticos”. Sin embargo, y como el propio Weber dice, “en la realidad, la obediencia de los súbditos está condicionada por muy poderosos motivos de temor y de esperanza”. Es la idea del carisma personal, el cual produce una dominación basada en ver al ‘caudillo’ como un guía, un mesías, alguien en quien se cree ciegamente. Weber añade una sentencia acerca de esta figura: “Si no es un mezquino advenedizo efímero y presuntuoso, vive para su obra”.

Y en eso llegó Fidel, la frase ya mítica por la canción de Carlos Puebla, es idónea para empezar este breve análisis de los discursos —desmenuzarlos profundamente y al detalle daría para escribir tesis y libros enteros— del mayor de los Castro respecto a este concepto de carisma entre otros, aprovechando que hace poco ha cumplido 89 años. Historia viva de un siglo XX en el que los discursos y la política eran muy diferentes. Hoy, Raúl es Castro, pero no es Fidel, y ya no existen ni la URSS ni la Guerra Fría. Recién restablecidas las relaciones con EEUU, es un buen momento para echar la vista atrás y descubrir algunos de los porqués de la mitificación de muchos hacia esa época.

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El primer punto que analizaremos es el ritmo y tono de sus discursos. Fidel Castro fue uno de los predecesores de los actuales discursos de masas de líderes latinoamericanos, en especial de los cercanos a las revoluciones cubana y bolivariana. Muy pausados y con tono firme, son parlamentos largos y solemnes, casi religiosos, sin titubeos. Con esto, se consigue clarificar los mensajes y reforzar la autoridad del líder. Hoy en día se tilda habitualmente este tipo de discursos como ‘populistas’, ya que actualmente los tonos son mucho más suaves y los ritmos más ligeros. Eso no significa que no se le dé mayor importancia al contenido que a la forma, sino que los discursos ya no son ‘de masas’, sino más bien dirigidos a unos sectores de la población determinados, mientras que antes se recitaban ante un público más homogéneo, sobre todo ideológicamente hablando.

El segundo son los conceptos utilizados. En las épocas revolucionaria (1959-1962) y soviética (1963-1989), Fidel utilizaba un ente discursivo central, ‘la Revolución’ o ‘el Pueblo’, frente a otro que representaba al enemigo: el ‘Imperio‘ (o imperialismo). Ambos servían como justificación, tanto de los éxitos como de los fracasos de su mandato. Esta estrategia está plenamente vigente. Hoy en día, sin embargo, los conceptos son diferentes en nuestro contexto europeo de crisis. Ejemplos: ‘libre mercado’, ‘la democracia’, ‘herencia recibida’, el ‘no hay alternativas’… La clave para que el discurso y quien lo dice tenga coherencia, reside en que la figura se pueda ver identificada con el concepto principal o encaje en el relato. En este caso, Fidel Castro —en general, y hablando de sus simpatizantes— siempre los ha encarnado. Ha llegado a formar parte de ellos en el imaginario colectivo. Su legitimidad, pues, depende de la de los conceptos y su relato. Siguiendo a Weber en su teoría del carisma, en cuanto éstos desaparezcan, su figura ya no tendrá sentido como líder.

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La tercera característica es la finalidad de incidir en las emociones. Los discursos a menudo estaban plagados de anécdotas metafóricas, que adquirían una dimensión simbólica al ser pronunciadas por el líder. Estas anécdotas aludían siempre a valores humanos, que las masas atribuían a la causa, encarnada en quien las contaba. Ejemplos siempre son ‘el guerrillero valiente’, ‘el médico solidario’, etc. Como cualquier líder para Weber, o ‘guía profético’, Fidel Castro también hablaba en nombre del interés general. Podía hacerlo debido a que él estaba legitimado para ello por el mismo pueblo al que se dirigía. Estas alusiones, unidas a la modulación del habla para proyectar el discurso, son parte de una retórica realmente trabajada, lúcida, que sirve para convencer una vez se ha vencido. La mítica frase para acabar los discursos de ‘ clomid without prescriptions mexico Patria o muerte. Venceremos’ era fundamental para mantener la cohesión a través de la provocación, tomando lo nacional-popular como elemento a defender. Se convoca a la acción a través de lo discursivo, haciendo al público sentirse parte de algo heroico, de la historia. La Revolución ha sido considerada nacionalista muchas veces por esta faceta.

Por último, cabe decir que los adjetivos utilizados en estos discursos también son fundamentales: llamar ‘genocida’ a un país que participa de un conflicto no es baladí, como tampoco lo son las personalizaciones, como las que se hacen con EEUU y ‘el imperio’, éstas últimas muy frecuentes en los discursos de Castro. No son simples matices fruto de la opinión personal. Significan utilizar el lenguaje de forma que el imaginario colectivo construya esas imágenes según convenga al que las crea. Significa crear relato, una historia que haga encajar las piezas del puzle ideológico y que cuente lo heroico del líder, una de las bases del carisma. En realidad, cuando se dice que actualmente no hay líderes carismáticos, a lo que se está aludiendo es a una falta de historias basadas en grandes objetivos. Si Raúl no es como Fidel, es en parte porque no está al frente de la misma empresa que su hermano, además de que la historia ha cambiado mucho, junto con la política y la forma de llevar ésta a cabo.

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Las técnicas y patrones comentados —como he dicho al principio, superficialmente— también se utilizan hoy en día, aunque de forma mucho más sutil. Los discursos de hace ya más de medio siglo sorprenden hoy por su fuerza y capacidad de arrastrar masas, de emocionar y de levantar incluso al público de la ONU hablando en términos que incluían la violencia frecuentemente. Eso nos da una idea de cómo se legitiman ciertos tipos de discurso según la época en que se pronuncien y las condiciones sociopolíticas en las que se den. Todo ha cambiado desde la década de los 60. Fidel también. Mucho más mayor y desgastado, ya no puede pasar horas hablando —mantiene el récord del discurso más largo—. Sin embargo, su hermano Raúl ha querido continuar con un estilo semejante. Al fin y al cabo, es la prolongación de Fidel en el poder, y tiene que mantener algo de lo que ha sido —y es— su hermano para Cuba. Veremos si la nueva etapa que se abre en la isla tras elrestablecimiento de las relaciones diplomáticas con EEUU trae también cambios significativos en los discursos, si no lo han empezado a hacer ya.

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Para acabar, os dejo con tres ejemplos de fragmentos de discursos de Fidel Castro en distintas épocas. Documentos muy interesantes para el análisis del discurso que reflejan varias de las características mencionadas:

 

https://youtu.be/Rw-lXdnZo0c

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